"A series of 35mm slides and an audio tape were created by
Catherine Becker and Marcella Slakosky in 1982, for a course
taught by Stuart Umpleby at the George Washington University."
The History and Development of Cybernetics:
W. Ross Ashby:
Oil and Vinegar:
Second Order Cybernetics
'Whereas, in the early days, cybernetics was generally applied to
systems seeking goals already defined for them, "second-order"
cybernetics refers to systems that define their own goals.'
Heinz von Foerster:
'...began extending the application of cybernetic principles to
understanding the role of the observer. This emphasis was called
"second-order cybernetics." '
'Whereas, first-order cybernetics dealt with controlled systems,
second-order cybernetics deals with autonomous systems.'
'In the classical view, a scientist working in a laboratory takes
great pains to prevent his own actions from affecting the outcome
of an experiment. However, as we move from mechanical systems,
such as the scientist works with in the laboratory, to social systems,
it becomes impossible to ignore the role of the observer.'
Observation of Observers Observing the Observed